Перевод текста 1. L. Pasteur (1822-1895) began his scientific career as a chemist, but it is because of his applications of germ theory to the prevention of disease that he became known as 'The Father of Microbiology'. Pasteur did not create germ theory, but he proved it to be correct. Once he had achieved this, he set about finding ways to prevent germs, the microorganisms present in the air, from infecting food and people. 2. He completed his famous experiment proving that microorganisms were present in the air while working for a wine company. He was trying to discover why wine sometimes went bad as it was being made. Once he had found the cause – microorganisms – he began to develop the process which carries his name – pasteurisation. It was perfectly possible to kill all the microorganisms in food by boiling it, a process known as sterilisation, but this damaged the taste and the quality of the food. Pasteur's process killed not all, but most of the microorganisms and it did not harm the quality of food. Much of the food we eat today is pasteurized. (L 3. His next achievement was built on the discovery of the British scientist Edward Jenner. Many years earlier, Jenner had discovered a way of giving people resistance to the deadly disease smallpox, by injecting them with a similar disease that was found among cows. The process became known as vaccination. Pasteur applied germ theory to his work and looked at samples of blood taken from healthy and infected animals. He grew bacteria in his laboratory and used them to infect animals. By chance, some of these germs failed to grow well in his laboratory; these weak germs were then used to infect some chickens. Although the chickens suffered at first, they made a complete recovery and could not be infected again. In this way, he discovered a way of increasing resistance to disease. L. Pasteur developed vaccines for many serious diseases including cholera and anthrax. At that time, these illnesses were certain death for anyone who caught them. 4. L. Pasteur's discoveries revolutionised work on infectious diseases. Pasteur's vaccines were different from Jenner's in one important way. Jenner found a weak form of smallpox and transferred it to humans. Pasteur weakened the disease in a laboratory and immunised people with that weakened form. Thanks to the work of Pasteur, we now live longer, our food stays fresh longer and we are less likely to die of disease. Indeed, smallpox is no longer found anywhere in the world, due to a huge vaccination programme carried out in the 20th century. This could never have happened without the scientific achievements of The Father of Microbiology. [based on: Macmillan Guide to science. SB, 2012

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